December 31, 2017

MBA Core Management Knowledge - One Year Revision Schedule


The blog contains articles on all management subjects developed using the most popular book on the subject. You can read articles on the sybject of your choice or use the following schedule.


One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

Revision Schedule


Current Month -  April  


January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July       - August     - September  - October  - November  - December


Subject Details of Each Month



January  (Principles of Management)
February (P.of M & Marketing Management from 23 Feb 2015 )

March (Mktg. Mgmt. & Operations Management from 17 March 2015)
April  (Supply Chain Management and Financial & Cost Accounting)

May  (Management Accounting & Organizational Behavior)
June (Innovation, Industrial Engineering and Economics)

July  (Economics, Engineering Economics, & Managerial Ethics)
August    (Statistics, Quality and Six Sigma, OR & BRM)

September (HRM, Mentoring, Training, Maintenance, Energy & Environment Management)  -  October  (Information Technology and Management Information Systems, Logistics - Warehousing and Transport)

November (Strategic Management & Financial Management)
December (Business Laws, Negotiation, Taxes and Government Relations)

Subject                                               Revision Period

Principles of Management                15 January   to   19 February

Marketing Management                    22 February to   16 March

Operations Management                   17 March     to    2 April

Supply Chain Management                 3 April       to  15 April

Financial & Cost Accounting            16 April       to  12 May




I am participating in April A to Z Blogging Challenge and I am writing on the theme Top Management Challenges.

Top Management Challenges.


Article 1: Awareness of Environment
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2017/04/awareness-of-environment.html




Updated 1 April 2017.  22 February 2017,  10 December 2015




December - Management Knowledge Revision


December (Business Laws, Negotiation, Taxes and Government Relations)

New

First Week - 1 to 5 December

Business Law - USA
https://www.sba.gov/category/navigation-structure/starting-managing-business/starting-business/business-law-regulations


Advertising and Marketing Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/advertising-marketing-law

Employment and Labor Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/employment-labor-law

Finance Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/finance-law

Online Business Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/online-business-law

Regulation of Financial Contracts
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/regulation-financial-contracts


Business Taxes - USA
https://www.irs.gov/Businesses


Small Business Tax Center
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed

Large Business and International Tax Center
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/large-business-and-international-tax-center

Deducting Business Expenses
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/deducting-business-expenses

Excise Tax
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/excise-tax


Second Week - 8 to 12, December

Negotiation Related Knowledge

Negotiations - Knowledge, Research and Skills
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2017/12/negotiations-knowledge-research-and.html


Six Surprising Negotiation Tactics That Get You The Best Deal
http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2013/12/05/six-surprising-negotiation-tactics-that-get-you-the-best-deal/
(Based on Wharton Professor Adam Grant's Book Give and Take

7 Negotiation Techniques Every Small Business Owner Should Know
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/30/negotiating-tips-small-business_n_4058588.html


10 Techniques for Better Negotiation
http://www.startupnation.com/articles/10-techniques-for-better-negotiation/

Archive - Program on Negotiation - Harvard Law School
http://www.pon.harvard.edu/tag/negotiation-techniques/


http://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/dealmaking-daily/negotiation-skills-and-negotiation-techniques-predicting-negotiator-decisions-and-behavior/

Negotation Techniques - An Introduction
http://web.mit.edu/negotiation/www/NTintro.html


Ten Tips to Convince Buyer to Pay More
http://www.negotiationbootcamp.com/NegotiationArticles/TipsForPriceNegotiation.html

Principled versus Positional Negotiation for Purchasing Professionals
79th Annual International ISM Conference Proceedings - 1994 - Atlanta, GA
https://www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org/pubs/Proceedings/confproceedingsdetail.cfm?ItemNumber=5205&SSO=1


Third and Fourth Weeks are left free as year-end vacation.

Bookmark and Visit on 15 January to start 2018 Revision


Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems



One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan


January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December


Old


First Week

Economics of Advertising - Economics for the CEO - Managerial economics

Managerial Economics of Basic Price - Joel Dean


Product-Line Pricing - Managerial Economics

Economics of Price Differentials - Joel Dean


Economics of Capital Budgeting - Joel Dean


Operations Management

Introduction to the Field of Operations Management
Operations Strategy and Competitiveness - Review Notes

Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming

Operations Management shifted to March

Third and Fourth Weeks are left free as year-end vacation.

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December



Updated 8, 6 December  2017, 1 December 2016,  11 December 2015






December 10, 2017

April - The Marketing Month for A to Z April Blogging Challenge Bloggers



Every April, a group of bloggers are coming together and organizing A to Z April Blogging Challenge. The challenge is a fairly regular feature and many bloggers participate in the challenge year after year. What are the opportunities and challenges of this blogging event?

Bloggers can come in touch with many bloggers. Thousands participate in the challenge every year.

Bloggers are encouraged to visit others' blog and interact with fellow bloggers through comments. Therefore, you come in touch with new bloggers through you comments and comments on your blogs.

You can observe some of the best blogging practices of the current period.

The challenge month, April must be used as your blog marketing month. You are advised to create the posts in advance so that you can spend more time in marketing your blog posts through interaction with fellow bloggers.




To Know More About A to Z Blogging Challenge




December 7, 2017

Negotiations - Knowledge, Research and Skills



Negotiation Skills



Negotiation skills are becoming increasingly recognized as important to effective management and personal success.

Research at one time identified some common mistakes being made in negotiations.

1. Negotiating persons tend to be overly affected by the frame, or form of presentation, of information in a negotiation.
2. Even when a course of action is no longer the most reasonable alternative, negotiators tend to nonrationally escalate commitment to a previously selected or advocated course of action.
3. Negotiators tend to assume that their gain must come at the expense of the other party and thereby miss opportunities for mutually beneficial trade-offs  between the parties.
4. Negotiators judgments tend to be anchored on irrelevant information, such as initial offer.
5. Negotiators tend to rely on readily available information.
6. Negotiators tend to fail to consider information that is available by focusing on the opponent's perspective.
7. Negotiators tend to be overconfident concerning the likelihood of attaining outcomes that favor the individual(s) involved.

 Traditionally, negotiators have depended on distributed and positional bargaining. Distributed bargaining assumes a "fixed pie" and focuses on how to get the biggest share, or "slice of the pie" for the benefit of the negotiating party. Positional bargaining approach involved successively taking and then giving up, a sequence of positions. A position involves telling the other side what you want.

Strategies called soft and hard are used in traditional ways of negotiating.  Characteristics of the "hard strategy" include the following: the goal is victory, distrust others, dig into your position, make threats, try to win contest of will, apply pressure.

Soft strategy includes characteristics: The goal is agreement, trust others, change your position easily,  make offers,  try to avoid a contest of will, and yield to pressure.


The traditional approach is now being challenged by more effective alternative negotiation skills.

Whetten and Cameron suggest an approach that takes an "expanding the pie" perspective and advocates finding win-win outcomes. The approach recommends:
1. Establishing superordinate goals.
2. Separating people from the problem
3. Focusing on interests, not positions
4. Inventing options for mutual gain.
5. Using objective criteria.

In terms of negotiation techniques or manoevres the following are identified as in use by negotiators.

 Practical low-risk strategies include flattery, addressing the easy points first, silence, inflated opening position, and "oh, poor me."

High-risk strategies include unexpected temper losses, high-balling, Boulwarism, and waiting until the last moment.

Harvard Negotiation Project came up with principled negotiation approach or negotiation on the merits approach. This is an  integrative approach, which uses a problem-solving, collaborative strategy, and the principled, or negotiation on the merits approach, which emphasizes people, interests, options, and criteria. These negotiation skills  change the game, leading to a win-win, wise agreement.

Along with social, emotional, behavioral, leadership, team, and communication skills, negotiation skills are becoming increasingly recognized as important to effective management.



Principled Negotiation Approach



Positional style of negotiation,

With the positional style of negotiation, each party starts with an extreme (may be unjustified) position. The basis for this approach is the belief that the ultimate solution will be favorable only if the initial offer is extreme and concessions are done. But it is zero-sum game. One party will win and one will lose and in many case of street buying situations, seller comes down drastically.

But deals and settlements in positional negotiations come with a steep non- monetary price. Trust becomes the victim and in the next negotiation also both parties bargain heavily. Thus, the process creates (or perpetuates) an adversarial relationship between the two parties.

Principled negotiation seeks to establish a foundation and climate where parties can be creative in searching for mutually beneficial solutions to a shared problem. This approach preserves, and may even enhance, ongoing relationships.

Four basic elements of principled negotiation were put forth by Fisher and Ury (1991) in their book Getting to Yes (1981).


FOUR PRINCIPLES -  PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION


People -- Separate the people from the problem.
Interests -- Focus on interests, not positions.
Options -- Generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do.
Criteria -- Insist that the result be based on some objective standard.


Four Negotiation Skills For Regular People
https://www.thehedgescompany.com/four-negotiation-skills-regular-people/


Principled versus Positional Negotiation for Purchasing Professionals
79th Annual International ISM Conference Proceedings - 1994 - Atlanta, GA
 https://www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org/pubs/Proceedings/confproceedingsdetail.cfm?ItemNumber=5205&SSO=1



Recent Articles on Negotiations - Quotes

Negotiation Is Changing
Noam Ebner
Journal of Dispute Resolution, Vol. 2017 (1), 99-143.
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2915204


Abandon zero-sum games in transactions and deals  

Claim up to 42% more value.
(quote created by NRao)

At MarketWatch Centre for Negotiation, we’ve found that negotiators can claim up to 42% more value in a deal by abandoning zero-sum games and creating a relationship based on trust and collaboration.
Why Negotiators Still Aren't 'Getting To Yes'
Keld Jensen, FEB 5, 2013
https://www.forbes.com/sites/keldjensen/2013/02/05/why-negotiators-still-arent-getting-to-yes/#1b6c1a9f2640


More References on Negotiation

IVY EXEC - Articles on Negotiation
https://www.ivyexec.com/executive-insights/category/advancing/negotiation-skills/


Books on Negotiation Skills


Negotiating at Work: Turn Small Wins Into Big Gains

Deborah M. Kolb, Jessica L. Porter
John Wiley & Sons, 27-Jan-2015 - Business & Economics - 288 pages


Understand the context of negotiations to achieve better results

Negotiation has always been at the heart of solving problems at work.  What has been missed in much of the literature of the past 30 years is that negotiations in organizations always take place within a context—of organizational culture, of prior negotiations, of power relationships—that dictates which issues are negotiable and by whom. When we negotiate for new opportunities or increased flexibility, we never do it in a vacuum. We challenge the status quo and we build out the path for others to negotiate those issues after us. In this way, negotiating for ourselves at work can create small wins that can grow into something bigger, for ourselves and our organizations.

Negotiating at Work offers practical advice for managing your own workplace negotiations: how to get opportunities, promotions, flexibility, buy-in, support, and credit for your work. It does so within the context of organizational dynamics, recognizing that to negotiate with someone who has more power adds a level of complexity. 

 Negotiating at Work is rooted in real-life cases of professionals from a wide range of industries and organizations, both national and international.

Strategies to get the other person to the table and engage in creative problem solving, even when they are reluctant to do so
Tips on how to recognize opportunities to negotiate, bolster your confidence prior to the negotiation, turn 'asks' into a negotiation, and advance negotiations that get "stuck"
A rich examination of research on negotiation, conflict management, and gender
By using these strategies, you can negotiate successfully for your job and your career; in a larger field, you can also alter organizational practices and policies that impact others.
Preview
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=F7FYBQAAQBAJ






Training Materials

Advanced Labor Negotiations
US Army, 1985
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x030450211;view=1up;seq=1


Updated 8 December 2017, 5 December 2017

Organizational Behavior Book by Fred Luthans - Review Notes

Organizational behavior is concerned with behavior of people. How they are going to respond to the actions of their colleagues, the supervisors and managers and also customers and suppliers are discussed in this subject.  The knowledge of this subject is to be converted into skills by adequate role plays and well designed procedures that students and readers can practice in their day to day interactions.

1. Introduction to Organizational Behavior

2. Environmental context: Information Technology and Globalization

3. Environmental context: Diversity and Ethics

4. Organizational Context: Design and Culture

5. Organizational Context:: Reward Systems

Cognitive Processes

6. Perception and Attribution

7. Personality and Attitudes

8. Motivational Needs and Processes

9. Positive Psychology Approach to OB

Dynamics of Organizational Behavior

10. Communication

11. Decision Making

12. Stress and Conflict - Negotiation Process (in more detail)

13. Power and Politics

14. Groups and Teams

Managing and Leading for High Performance

15. Managing Performance through Job Design and Goal Setting

16. Behavioral Performance Management

17. Effective Leadership Process

18. Great Leaders: Styles, Activities, and Skills


MBA Knowledge Revision Schedule


January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July       - August     - September  - October - November  - December


Updated 9 December 2017, 27 June 2014

November 30, 2017

Manufacturing Sector - Business and Management Issues and Trends



September 2017

The McKinsey Global Institute finds that the United States could boost annual manufacturing value added by up to $530 billion (20 percent) over current trends by 2025.

By 2025, consumption in emerging markets will hit $30 trillion.

Industry 4.0, is driven by developments in data aquisition, storage and analytics,  machine learning, new forms of human–machine interaction (such as touch interfaces and augmented-reality systems), and the ability to transmit digital instructions to the physical world. In combination, the technologies can run smart, cost-efficient, and automated plants that produce large volumes—or, conversely, plants that turn out highly customized products.

https://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/americas/making-it-in-america-revitalizing-us-manufacturing

Great Leaders and Great Leadership - A to Z Qualities and Activities


Science and Management

https://www.inc.com/lolly-daskal/26-qualities-that-will-lead-you-to-greatness.html



1. Authentic Leadership

___________________

___________________

Knowledge at Wharton

2. Braveness


3. Character


4. Decisiveness and Determination


5. Engaging


6. Foresight


7. Goal-oriented


8. Humble


9. Inspiring


10. Just


11. Knowledgeable


12. Listener


13. Motivating


14. Noble


15. Optimistic


16. Progressive


17. Qualitative


18. Reliable


19. Service, Supportive


20. Trustworthy


21. Unbiased


22. Visionary


23. Wisdom


24. Xcellent


25. Yearning


26. Zealous

November 28, 2017

Business Model Innovation




Managerial Opportunity Recognition in Business Model Innovation

Marijan Topic
GRIN Verlag, 06-Nov-2017 - Business & Economics - 159 pages


Master's Thesis from the year 2017 Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg


The goal of this Master’s thesis is to examine the relationship between managerial Opportunity Recognition (OR) and business model innovations (BMIs) in established organizations. In order to meet the complexity of the topic, this thesis is focused on factors that hinder or help managers in recognizing business opportunities. Focusing on incumbent firms, this paper conducts further research to identify the main influencing factors, including challenges, vulnerabilities, and obstacles. The thesis is divided into six parts, starting with a brief description of the research topic, including the problem position and objective.

Second, a literature review is conducted to summarize the state of research, including theoretical foundations. The results are then synthesized into a summary

The third part of the thesis consists of expert interviews. Derived from the literature review, a guideline for interviews is developed to treat the research gaps in an appropriate way and to meet the complexity of the task setting. The explorative survey aims to identify the challenges and drivers of managerial OR in BMI and to identify approaches that have not yet been addressed in scientific literature to a significant extent.

The core of the analysis is the splitting of the BM into the elements value proposition, value creation, and value capture. This ensures that all the facets of a company ́s BM are accurately addressed and form the basis for high-quality results.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=9DI9DwAAQBAJ



40 Principles for Business Model Innovation

The 40 principles for innovation, based on TRIZ adjusted for business problems, is the result of an analysis of close to three million successful inventive solutions from areas such as science, arts, politics.

http://tbmdb.blogspot.in/2009/03/40-principles-for-business-model.html

November 27, 2017

Principles of Innovation



The Eureka Factor - Creative Insights and the Brain

John Kounios, Mark Beeman
Random House, 09-Apr-2015 - Psychology - 288 pages

Where do great ideas come from?
What actually happens in your brain during a ‘Eureka’ moment?
How can we have more of them?


John Kounios and Mark Beeman, leading experts on the neural bases of insight and creative thinking, have conducted pioneering neuroimaging research examining brain activity at and before these moments of clarity. In The Eureka Factor they reveal exactly how sudden insights are formed in the brain, how we can increase our chances of generating them, and how they impact our thinking.

Helping to unlock the mechanisms behind intuitive flashes and inspiration, this ground-breaking account not only explains the science of insight, but also describes the keys to innovation and creativity.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=K2F-BAAAQBAJ



From Permanent Innovation - Langdon Morris

Permanent Innovation

The Definitive Guide to the Principles, Strategies, and Methods of  Successful Innovators

Langdon Morris

Langdon Morris is a co-founder and principal of InnovationLabs LLC and Senior Practice Scholar at the Ackoff Center of the University of Pennsylvania and Senior Fellow of the Economic Opportunities Program of the Aspen Institute.
http://www.innovationlabs.com/publications/


1. Innovation is essential to survival, and all innovation is strategic.


Through innovation organizations create their own futures,  Hence, the development of a highly productive innovation capability is one of the most important strategic priorities for any organization. At the same time, all innovation that is commercialisation  must be guided by strategic priorities and
intentions.


2. There are four types of innovation: incremental, breakthrough products & technologies, new business models, and new ventures.


3. The longer you wait to begin innovating, the worse things will get.

The lack of innovation can significantly diminish their future prospects. The competition isn’t
waiting, and if you are late, you are up against bigger barriers.


4. Innovation is a social art; it happens when people interact with one another.

People drive creative ideas, inventions and  innovations.  Hence they are the core of any innovation process. Their insights, concerns, and desires shape the pursuit of new ideas and the countless decisions to be made in the process of transforming these ideas into value. Consequently, managing innovation involves  managing people, It also using the principles and practices according to which their work is organized.

5. Innovation without methodology is just luck.


You have to develop and apply right  methodologies, to make the shift from luck to consistency, predictability, and sustainability. Without the right innovation methodology you’re risking far too much - you’re risking your future.

6. All four strategic innovation viewpoints are critical to success.

 The  innovation methodology has to leverage all four viewpoints: Topdown, Bottom-up, Outside-in, and Peer-to-peer.

7. Great innovations begin with great ideas; to find them, identify unknown and unmet needs.

There are dozens of tools that you can apply to come up with new ideas.

8. Ready, Aim, Aim, Aim, Fire.

Effective innovation requires very careful targeting. Why? Because there are so many possibilities to chase that you have to make sure you’re going after the right ones. Besides which, innovation is expensive both in terms of cash and time, and good aiming enables you to use your resources wisely.


9. Prototype rapidly to accelerate learning.

The goal of any innovation process is to come up with the best ideas and get them into market as quickly as possible. Innovation process has  learning component, and learning faster has enormous advantages. Prototyping effectively condenses the learning process. Rapid prototyping is therefore central to most forms of effective innovation methodology.

10. There is no innovation without leadership.

The organizational hierarchy has tremendous influence on the culture of any company, on its ways of working, and the results it achieves. Top managers can be powerful champions of innovation. It’s up to leaders to ensure that their words and their actions support and enhance innovation efforts and methods, and that at the same time they work diligently to eliminate the many obstacles that otherwise impede or even crush both creativity and innovation.



GOOGLE's  9 PRINCIPLES OF INNOVATION


CHIEF SOCIAL EVANGELIST GOPI KALLAYIL SPELLED OUT THE TECH GIANT'S SUCCESS RECIPE.

1. INNOVATION COMES FROM ANYWHERE
2. FOCUS ON THE USER.
3. AIM TO BE TEN TIMES BETTER
4. BET ON TECHNICAL INSIGHTS
5. SHIP AND ITERATE
6. GIVE EMPLOYEES 20 PERCENT TIME
7. DEFAULT TO OPEN PROCESSES
8. FAIL WELL
9. HAVE A MISSION THAT MATTERS
http://www.fastcompany.com/3021956/how-to-be-a-success-at-everything/googles-nine-principles-of-innovation

Marissa Mayer in 2008 with Google gave a similar but some different principles
http://www.innovationmanagement.se/imtool-articles/marissa-mayer-on-googles-nine-principles-of-innovation/


Principles of Innovation - National Association for Healthcare Quality


1. Make innovation a part of the culture.
• Innovation has to be part of our culture. Organizations must encourge and make  continuous improvement and innovation a part of the routine.

2. Take risks.
• 96% of innovations fail (Doblin Group).
Organizations must be willing  take this high  risk and be ready to fail many time in order to
learn and come out with an innovation which ultimately leads to great success.

3. Be our own critic.
 • Be honest about what research/data reveal about your organization's performance in various parameters.

4. Build the innovator group.
• Identify effective innovators in the organization and form groups with the freedom to do the thinking with special facilities.
• Encourage creativity and outside-the-box thinking. Acknowledge and encourage people who think
differently.

5. Limit constraints. Cultivate creativity.
• Ask “Why?” rather than ”Why not?” Accentuate the positive.
• Truly promote change and look for opportunities to change.
• Don’t establish too many constraints on innovation—allow and support wildly innovative ideas.

6. Awareness of future.
• Anticipate the future customer needs and quality issue that are likely to come up in delivering products and services.
• Learn from the past. Revisit what had value and why.

7. Diminish risk by allowing for adequate time.
• Move fast-selecting/implementing innovations. Time spent researching and vetting every possible
outcome can help reduce significant risk.



Criteria for Innovation Evaluation


1. Lead the customer to a superior alternative.
• Give them what they don’t yet know they need by anticipating future needs.

2. Maintain focus.
• Aim for depth (execute a few ideas for programs/products expertly) rather than breadth (attempting to accomplish too much, leading to ineffectiveness).
• Align innovations with strengths.

3. Add measurable value
• Consider and implement ideas that have the potential to produce revenue.
• New programs and products should increase participation and membership (value-added outcomes).

4. Think differently. Execute differently.
• Make minor or major changes to fit current needs.
• Consider new constructs and models not previously implemented in healthcare organizations. It can be a product, process, or program.

5. Keep the customer in mind. • Design programs and products with the voice of the customer in mind, making sure to include testing.

6. Strive to create win-win situation.
• Develop new ways to collaborate and cooperate with states or other associations while improving national products/programs while including key stakeholders early in the process.
• Create a win-win situation for NAHQ and its customers.
http://www.nahq.org/uploads/2012_NAHQ_Principles_of_Innovation_August_22_2012Final.pdf

8 Pillars of Innovation - Article by Susan Wojcicki - VP Advertising of Google
July 2011
https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/articles/8-pillars-of-innovation.html




More articles on principles of innovation

https://landor.com/thinking/eight-principles-of-innovation


Robert O'Keefe, (2013) "Applying Principles of Innovation to Curriculum Revision", International Journal of Innovation Science, Vol. 5 Issue: 3, pp.173-178.

This paper expresses the  view that principles and concepts traditionally identified with Industrial Innovation can be productively applied to activities that are related to the creation of new courses and to the revisions of existing courses that comprise academic programs.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1260/1757-2223.5.3.173?journalCode=ijis


https://www.salesforce.com/hub/business/the-six-principles-driving-innovation/


MBA Core Management Knowledge - One Year Revision Schedule

Updated 29 November 2017, 29 November 2014






November 24, 2017

Digital Transformation of Business and Industrial Organizations - Subject Update







2017

KPMG declared leader in digital transformation consulting
Jul 12, 2017

KPMG was recently named a leader in the IDC MarketScape awards titled “Worldwide Digital Transformation Consulting and Systems Integration Services 2017 Vendor Assessment”. The award process noted that under times of turbulent change and economic challenges many firms around the world were calling upon KPMG to help them through the process challenges. KPMG have been identified for their strength in aiding organizations to begin the transformation process, and the disruptions this can bring, while maintaining their place within a competitive market.
http://www.digitaljournal.com/business/kpmg-declared-as-a-leader-in-digital-transformation-consulting/article/497459


Evolve Or Die: Why Digital Transformation Is More Important Than Ever
Four areas of focus for Digital transformation
http://www.brandquarterly.com/evolve-die-digital-transformation-important-ever

Davos 2017 - Preparing for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

World Economic Forum
__________________

__________________

Published on 19 Jan 2017
http://www.weforum.org/
What is needed from the public and private sectors to ensure that the Fourth Industrial Revolution benefits all of humanity?

- Mukesh D. Ambani, Chairman and Managing Director, Reliance Industries, India
- Mary Barra, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, General Motors Company, USA
- Marc R. Benioff, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Salesforce, USA; Young Global Leader Alumnus
- Shu Yinbiao, Chairman, State Grid Corporation of China, People's Republic of China
- Vishal Sikka, Chief Executive Officer, Infosys, USA

Chaired by
- Ngaire Woods, Dean, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, United Kingdom



Davos 2017 - Press Conference: The Digital Transformation of Industries

__________________

__________________
World Economic Forum,  Published on 19 Jan 2017
http://www.weforum.org/

The World Economic Forum launched the multi-year Digital Transformation of Industries Project in 2015 in partnership with Accenture. The project looks at how digital technologies like machine learning, cloud computing, and the internet of things are changing existing industries and creating entirely new ones. It makes recommendations to incumbents on how they can thrive in the new digital environment.

There are now hundreds of startups attacking traditional markets as a result of the democratization of technology, increased access to funds and a rising entrepreneurial culture. Start-ups are achieving scale far quicker than analogue companies ever did. Average Fortune 500 companies took 20 years to reach a market cap of $1 billion, Google managed it in eight years, and the likes of Uber, Snapchat and Xiaomi in three years or less. 88% of Fortune 500 companies from 1955 – 2015 no longer exist. Digital disruption has been a major driver of this, consequently Fortune 500 companies must use their considerable resources to fight off the attacks of leaner challengers and remain relevant in a digital age.

- Bruce Weinelt, Head of Digital Transformation, World Economic Forum
- Peter Lacy, Global Managing Director, Strategy and Sustainability, Accenture
- Stephanie Linnartz, Global Chief Commercial Officer, Marriott International Inc.
- Jean Philbert Nsengimana, Minister of Youth and Information Communication Technology,        Ministry of Youth and Information and Communication Technology of Rwanda

Moderated by
- Alem Tedeneke, Media Specialist, World Economic Forum LLC

2016


3 Industries That Will Be Transformed By AI, Machine Learning And Big Data In The Next Decade
Bernard Marr
SEP 27, 2016
Healthcare - Finance - Insurance

https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2016/09/27/3-industries-that-will-be-transformed-by-ai-machine-learning-and-big-data-in-the-next-decade/#2104a850183e


Acting on the Digital Imperative - BCG

SEPTEMBER 12, 2016
By Ralf Dreischmeier , Karalee Close , Thomas Gumsheimer , Peter Hildebrandt , and Adal Zamudio
https://www.bcg.com/publications/2016/technology-digital-strategy-acting-on-digital-imperative.aspx

Digital Transformation Playbook

Prof. David Rogers, Columbia Business School
_________________

_________________
June 2016, Columbia Business School

https://cup.columbia.edu/book/the-digital-transformation-playbook/9780231175449



The Digital Imperative  - Article by BCG

By Ralf Dreischmeier , Karalee Close , and Philippe Trichet
MARCH 2, 2015
https://www.bcg.com/publications/2015/digital-imperative.aspx



Updated on 25 November 2017,  26 August 2017,   22 August 2017, 7 June 2017, 14 April 2017

November 10, 2017

Management Theory and Practice - Bulletin Board - 2017

Engineering and Management News - A Daily Publication  - Management Principles and Propositions

HBR Business Blogs

November 2017


Transformations by New CEOs
https://www.bcg.com/publications/2017/transformations-people-organization-that-work-why.aspx?linkId=44591301

Amoeba Management - Kazuo Inamori - Full Web Page on the topic with various links

http://global.kyocera.com/inamori/management/amoeba/

27 August 2016

Why Companies Can’t Perceive Customer Insights and Can't Turn the limited Customer Insight into Growth

BCG Perspectives
16 August 2016

Many companies spend more time looking inward. Check in your next internal meeting, record on one sdie each mention of an internal topic, such as financial or operational performance, plans, metrics, organization, employees, or culture. On the other side, record each discussion of an external topic, related to competition such as technology, innovation, purpose, testing, social media conversations, or topics related to customer,  customers’ behaviors, needs, and wants. You will be surprised to see that internal topics dominate the external topics. Hence people spend more time in preparing for answering internal issues related questions and spend less time customers and competition.  This is not a good way of allocating top management and middle management resources. At each meeting, the priority area is to be decided and adequate time is to be given to that area. There has to be balance in various activities of the organisation. This principle was given by Henri Fayol way back in 1920s.
https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/center-customer-insight-marketing-sales-why-companies-cant-turn-customer-insights-growth/

Values of Business Schools


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Updated 12 November 2017, 20 October 2016,  27 August 2016,  18 September 2015

October 23, 2017

The Strategic Management Process - Review Notes





The tasks of developing  and executing company strategies are the heart and soul of managing a business enterprise and winning in the marketplace.

A company's strategy is the plan management is using to acquire a market position and  conduct its operations. This involves  attracting and pleasing customers, competing successfully against and the current and future rivals, and achieving organizational objectives.

The central thrust of a company's strategy is undertaking moves to build and strengthen the company's long-term competitive position in its chose target market segments as well as in the overall market and  gain a competitive advantage over rivals that then becomes a company's ticket to above-average profitability and performance. A company's strategy typically evolves over time as a blend of (1) proactive and purposeful actions on the part of company managers and (2) as-needed reactions to unanticipated developments and fresh market conditions.

Closely related to the concept of strategy is the concept of a company's business model.

A company's business model is management's story line for how and why the company's product offerings and competitive approaches will generate a revenue stream and have an associated cost structure that produces attractive earnings and return on investment—in effect, a company's business model sets forth the economic logic for making money in a particular business, given the company's current strategy.  Business model must have a demand model, that explains how the company's product or products sell a particular quantity at a particular price. The model has to satisfy the criterion that as price increases demand decreases for each product. The cost model is also a part of the business model. It tells how a particular quantity of a product is produced and distributed at a particular cost. Thus profit is determined from the demand model and cost model for a specified price. The company then has the option to select a price that maximizes the profit or a price that maximizes the demand given a minimum profit to be achieved.

A winning strategy fits the circumstances of a company's external situation and its internal resource strengths and competitive capabilities, builds competitive advantage, and boosts company performance.

Crafting and executing strategy are core management functions and especially the core top management functions in an organization. Whether a company wins or loses in the marketplace is directly attributable to the potential of that company's strategy and the zeal and controls with which the strategy is executed.

Managerial Process



The managerial process of crafting and executing a company's strategy consists of five interrelated and integrated phases:

Developing a strategic vision of where the company needs to head and what its future product/market/technology focus should be. This managerial step provides long-term direction, infuses the organization with a sense of purposeful action.


Objectives are derived from the  strategic mission and  vision and larger in number and they address the aspirations of all the stakeholders. Goals spell out how much of what kind of performance by when.  Companies need to both financial objectives and goals and strategic objectives and goals. A balanced scorecard approach provides the basis for both.


Crafting a strategy to achieve the objectives and move the company along the strategic course that management has charted. Crafting strategy is concerned principally with forming responses to changes under way in the external environment, devising competitive moves and market approaches aimed at producing sustainable competitive advantage, building competitively valuable competencies and capabilities, and uniting the strategic actions initiated in various parts of the company. The more that a company's operations cut across different products, industries, and geographical areas, the more that strategy making becomes a collaborative effort involving managers and company personnel at many organizational levels. The total strategy that emerges in such companies is really a collection of strategic actions and business approaches initiated partly by senior company executives, partly by the heads of major business divisions, partly by functional-area managers, and partly by operating managers on the frontlines.

The larger and more diverse the operations of an enterprise, the more points of strategic initiative it has and the more managers and employees at more levels of management that have a relevant strategy-making role.

Three Levels of Strategy


A single-business enterprise has three levels of strategy—business strategy for the company as a whole, functional-area strategies for each main area within the business, and operating strategies undertaken by lower-echelon managers to flesh out strategically significant aspects for the company's business and functional area strategies.

Four Levels of Strategy


In diversified, multibusiness companies, the strategy-making task involves four distinct types or levels of strategy: corporate strategy for the company as a whole, business strategy (one for each business the company has diversified into), functional-area strategies within each business, and operating strategies. Typically, the strategy-making task is more top-down than bottom-up, with higher-level strategies serving as the guide for developing lower-level strategies.


Implementing and executing the chosen strategy efficiently and effectively. 


Managing the implementation and execution of strategy is an operations-oriented (Marketing, Production, Sales, Distribution and Service), make-things-happen activity aimed at shaping the performance of core business activities in a strategy-supportive manner. Management's handling of the strategy implementation process can be considered successful if  the company meets or beats its strategic and financial performance targets and shows good progress in achieving management's strategic vision.


Evaluating performance and initiating corrective adjustments in vision, long-term direction, objectives, strategy, or execution in light of actual experience, changing conditions, new ideas, and new opportunities.

This phase of the strategy management process is the trigger point for deciding whether to continue or change the company's vision, objectives, strategy, and/or strategy execution methods.
A company's strategic vision plus its objectives plus its strategy equals a strategic plan for coping with industry and competitive conditions, outcompeting rivals, and addressing the challenges and issues that stand as obstacles to the company's success.

Activities -  The Managers have to do


Successful managers have to do several things in leading the drive for good strategy execution and operating excellence.

First, they stay on top of things. They keep a finger on the organization's pulse by spending considerable time outside their offices, listening and talking to organization members, coaching, cheerleading, and picking up important information.

Second, they are active and visible in putting constructive pressure on the organization to achieve good results. Generally, this is best accomplished by promoting an esprit de corps that mobilizes and energizes organizational members to execute strategy in a competent fashion and deliver the targeted results.

Third, they keep the organization focused on operating excellence by championing innovative ideas for improvement and promoting the use of best practices to ensure value creating activities are performed in a first-rate fashion.

Fourth, they exert their clout in developing competencies and competitive capabilities that enable better execution.

Fifth, they serve as a role model in displaying high ethical standards, and they insist that company personnel conduct the company's business ethically and in a socially responsible manner. They demonstrate unequivocal and visible commitment to the ethics enforcement process.

Sixth and finally, when a company's strategy execution effort is not delivering good results and the organization is not making measured progress toward operating excellence, it is the leader's responsibility to step forward and push corrective actions.

Role of The Company Board


Boards of directors have a duty to shareholders to play a vigilant role in overseeing management's handling of a company's strategy-making, strategy-executing process. A company's board is obligated to (1) critically appraise and ultimately approve strategic action plans; (2) evaluate the strategic leadership skills of the CEO and others in line to succeed the incumbent CEO; (3) institute a compensation plan for top executives that rewards them for actions and results that serve stakeholder interests, most especially those of shareholders; and (4) ensure that the company issues accurate financial reports and has adequate financial controls.





References
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073530425/student_view0/chapter1/
17th edition site

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073530425/student_view0/chapter2/


Updated 25 October 2017,  13 August 2016,  21 May 2012

October 21, 2017

Psychology for Managers - Introduction

Manufacturing Management - Text Books - Bibliography














Early Books on Manufacturing Management



Factory Organization and Administration
Hugo Dimer, First Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylavania State College
First edition: 1910
Third edition digital copy
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryorganiza00diemgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Profit Making in Shop and Factory Management
Charles U. Carpenter, 1908
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002748576#page/n1/mode/2up

Shop Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Factory and Office Administration
Lee Galloway, 1918
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryofficeadm00galliala#page/n3/mode/2up

Factory Management Wastes: And How to Prevent Them
James F. Whiteford, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/factorymanagemen00whit#page/n7/mode/2up

Plant Management
Dexter S. Kimball, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924031222627#page/n7/mode/2up






2017

Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=khBhDgAAQBAJ

Manufacturing Management - Introduction

Planning, organizing and controlling manufacture of goods is manufacturing management. Chase et al. define operations management as the design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm's primary products and services. Operations management is a discipline that includes production of goods and services.

Once the company decides to manufacture and sell a product, the specialized responsibility of the manufacturing management starts. But the decision to manufacture a product is based on feasibility analysis. During this analysis also manufacturing management issues are involved. Therefore, the persons doing strategic analysis or corporate planning analysis include persons from manufacturing management discipline with manufacturing management knowledge and bring into the analysis or decision making process the manufacturing view point.

Manufacturing is carried out through processes. A process is any actvity or group of activities that takes one or more inputs, transforms them, and provides one or more outputs. The output could be for an external customer for sale or for an internal customer to use for further processing. In some cases it can be for consumption in the same process or by the consumption by the producer hmself. Manufacturing processes convert materials into goods that have a physical form. The transformation processes change the materials on one or more of the following dimensions:

1. Physical properties
2. Shape
3. Fixed dimension
4. Surface finish
5. Joining parts and materials.

The outputs from manufacturing processes can stored and transported in anticipation of future demand (Krajewski et al. 2007).

Important Developments in Manufacturing Management



Developments in manufacturing management include certain technical developments that made manufacturing systems more productive and flexible.

Shop floor management guidelines provided by F.W. Taylor were landmarks in the field of manufacturing management. Taylor further development Scientific management philosophy. Taylor also brought out the importance of scientific studies in manufacturing processes improvement or design. His studies on machining were considered a very important research contribution. Taylor also introduced time study based best practice identification and training all operators in the best practice. He advocated that manufacturing managers have the responsibility of developing manufacturing methods and training operators in best methods.

Frank Gilbreth developed study of motions of operators to develop efficient operator movements either to do manual work or to operate machines. He and Lilian Gilbreth also introduced the concept of fatigue and proposed ways to prevent the negative consequences of fatigue in operators as well as in manufacturing systems.

Henry Ford introduced moving assembly lines that revolutionized the production systems. Henry Gantt developed charts that helped scheduling production activities.

Harry Emerson wrote a book on principles of efficiency and it became part of industrial engineering and scientific management literature. Focus on efficiency in systems in general and especially manufacturing systems sharpened.

F.W. Harris developed theory of batch quantities in production and purchase. Walter Shewart developed procedures for using statistical thinking in process control. He created methods for determining when to change machine setups based on the measurements of samples taken at random intervals.

Hawthorne studies became another landmark development in manufacturing management. They brought out the importance of psychological variables in improving or decreasing productivity of operators. Unfortunately, the proponents of this line of thought have not integrated their conclusions with the ideas of scientific management appropriately. They chose to attack themes of scientific management. Manufacturing management might have had a different state today, if scientific management movement that had engineering foundations and human relations school of thought that had psychology as its foundation were appropriately integrated by human relations school.

Development of operations research (OR) helped manufacturing managers to understand and optimize their systems better. Study of operations research became a part of studies of manufacturing managers. Use of computers was started in recording store related transactions and data and it was extended to shop floor transaction data. The use was further extended to calculation of batch quantities and preparation of loading sheets and schedules. MRP and MRP II came into existence and they got extended into ERP systems.

In 1970s, scholars in USA recognized that Japanese had used their manufacturing management philosophies, strategies and techniques as a strategic capability to win market shares in global markets. A new era of manufacturing strategy thought developed in manufacturing management. Automation increased in factories. With this multi-skilling of operators came into picture as now operators have more time and can operate more machines. As group layout became more popular, an operator was required to operate different machines which were in series. Total quality management, total productive maintenance, total cost management became the strategies. JIT or lean systems became the best practice production systems. While improvement everywhere reached its zenith, the important idea that it is improvement in bottleneck that has the most value was highlighted by Goldratt in the name of 'Theory of Constraints.'

Many new technologies came into existence and were adopted into manufacturing processes. The existing ideas regarding technology adoption did not emphasize the suboptimal use of technology. The full power of technology was not being put to use by many. Theory of BPR brought this into focus and helped systems become more productive by utilizing the power and potential of the new technologies more. Ability to look at bigger and bigger systems using OR models and system dynamics models and the ability to access data anywhere using internet based data communication systems made coordination across distributed national and global facilities. This led to the development of theory of supply chain wherein information can be made visible to anybody and optimization can be done from the point of origin or raw materials to its dumping point. Manufacturing facilities are now a part of supply chains wherein information is available to both suppliers and potential customers in real time and purchasing is done through electronic orders. In a century, manufacturing management theory and practice developed immensely.


Chase, Richard, B., F. Robert Jacobs, Nicholas J. Aquilano , Operations Management, 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.
Krajewski, Lee et al., Operations Management: Processes and Value Chains, 8th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2007.

________________________________________________________________________

Early Books on Manufacturing Management



Factory Organization and Administration
Hugo Dimer, First Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylavania State College
First edition: 1910
Third edition digital copy
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryorganiza00diemgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Profit Making in Shop and Factory Management
Charles U. Carpenter, 1908
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002748576#page/n1/mode/2up

Shop Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Factory and Office Administration
Lee Galloway, 1918
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryofficeadm00galliala#page/n3/mode/2up

Factory Management Wastes: And How to Prevent Them
James F. Whiteford, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/factorymanagemen00whit#page/n7/mode/2up

Plant Management
Dexter S. Kimball, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924031222627#page/n7/mode/2up

__________________________________________________________________________


Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing. 



Article originally posted in
http://knol.google.com/k/-/-/2utb2lsm2k7a/3309

Updated 22 October 2017, 13 October 2014

October 20, 2017

Manufacturing Management Subject Update


Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journal/jmtm

2017

Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing. 


March 2015


Questions by Manufacturing Managers on Industrial Engineering and Cost Management
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2014/11/manufacturing-managers-questions-on.html
You can provide your answers in comments


Advances in Production Management Systems
Conference APMS 2013
Proceedings Vol. 2
Preview Google Books
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=MGS7BQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Early Books on Manufacturing Management



Factory Organization and Administration
Hugo Dimer, First Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylavania State College
First edition: 1910
Third edition digital copy
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryorganiza00diemgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Profit Making in Shop and Factory Management
Charles U. Carpenter, 1908
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002748576#page/n1/mode/2up

Shop Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Factory and Office Administration
Lee Galloway, 1918
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryofficeadm00galliala#page/n3/mode/2up

Factory Management Wastes: And How to Prevent Them
James F. Whiteford, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/factorymanagemen00whit#page/n7/mode/2up

Plant Management
Dexter S. Kimball, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924031222627#page/n7/mode/2up


Updated 2017, 10 December 2015

Scope and Definition of Manufacturing - Production Management



Manufacturing creates man-made goods from various materials. The goods, more specifically called finished  goods are created through manufacturing processes. Modern manufacturing employs machines to produce goods. Manufacturing management plans, organizes, acquires resources required for manufacture, allocates those resources to various departments, directs and controls manufacturing activity.The aims of manufacturing management are producing goods according to the specifications of the customer or of the product design department if it is made to stock product developed by the company, in amounts and by the schedule demanded at minimum cost. Manufacturing is carried out in factories or manufacturing plants. A manufacturing plant and the various activities carried out in it can also be described as a manufacturing system. Modern manufacturing systems have machines, methods, men, material, motive power, money and management essential components of the system. In terms of assets used in accounting terminology, we can say manufacturing system has both long term assets (fixed assets) and current assets (short term assets).

Manufacturing management involves plans and  decisions regarding long term assets and short term assets, manufacturing methods and manpower.

We can say the long term decisions are in the areas of design, installation and improvement of specified products, manufacturing processes to produce those products, equipment for production, transportation, inspection etc., industrial buildings, location of the plant, layout of the plant. recruitment of permanent manpower and training to develop them into skilled operators in the processes employed by the organization etc. Manufacturing management has to be effective and efficient. Effectiveness refers to producing what customers want in quantities according to the delivery time requested. Efficiency refers to the cost dimension and wastes that occur in manufacturing systems if special attention is not paid to eliminate them.  Industrial engineering is a specialized discipline providing efficiency improvement service at design, installation and improvement stages of manufacture.  

The short term decisions of manufacturing are related production quantities in year, quarter, month etc., inventories, temporary increases or reductions in manpower, overtime decisions to take care of sudden increases in demand, or some exigencies, short term cost budgets, and other incidental  day to day activities. Production planning and control, inventory planning and control, cost control, quality control, maintenance planning and control etc. are some of the well known short term manufacturing management areas that are well developed as independent subjects in manufacturing management degree curriculums. Similarly, new product development, process planning, facilities planning, manufacturing strategy, industrial engineering etc. are well developed subjects dealing with long term aspects of manufacturing management. Industrial engineering became a degree level curriculum as number of methods were developed in this area providing a scope for specially educated and trained professionals in this discipline. Value engineering, Methods Efficiency Engineering, Motion Study, Work Measurement, Ergonomics, Operations Research, Engineering Economics, Applied Statistics, Six Sigma, SMED, Poka Yoke Design etc. are full subjects in industrial engineering curriculums apart  from the basic engineering knowledge in various engineering branches, knowledge of business processes and managerial processes.

Manufacturing managers at various levels are responsible for both effectiveness and efficiency. But they can employ industrial engineers in their department either on full time basis or on assignment basis from their organization industrial engineering department or on consultancy basis from outside industrial engineering organizations.

Elwood S. Buffa, well known author of Modern Production Management first published in 1961 included the following topics to introduce the scope of production management. 

Long Term Decision Areas

Production processes
Automation and Use of Computers (Presently CAD-CAM or CIM)
Design of Jobs and Work Methods
Design of The Working Environment
Production Design of Products and Process Planning
Plant Location
Layout of Physical Facilities

Short Term Decision Areas

Inventory and Production Control
Maintenance
Control of Quality
Production Standards and Work Measurement
Wages and Labor Costs
Control and Improvement of Production Costs.


It is important to state that managerial skills are classified as business conceptual skills, people related skills and technical skills. So manufacturing managers need to have the knowledge to conceive a business opportunity to their department assets and people, knowledge to manage people related to the supply chain that starts  from suppliers of materials and ends with the customer, and technical skills in various methods involved in the manufacturing establishment to plan them, organized them, acquire resources, allocate resources, and direct and control the activities.

References

Elwood S. Buffa, Modern Production Management, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1961.

Related Article
Manufacturing Management - Introduction


Planned Revision of Operations Management/Production Management Book Chapters  - March Month



Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=khBhDgAAQBAJ

Updated 22 October 2017, 17 March 2017